This is a work in progress
I do not want to tell you what you already know; nor do I want to re-hash packing lists that you can get elsewhere (e.g. browse for 'Ten Essentials'). Rather, I want to present items that have been useful to me in a way that may help you.
Hiking Poles are fairly useless. You can easily get by without them if your path is all trail. Research shows that you actually use more energy, not less, when you hike with a pole. They tie up your hands. Try taking a picture, unwrapping a candy bar, writing a note, or checking your compass with a pair of poles in your hands.
So, why bother?
In my experience, these are the cases where a pole is helpful:
I do a lot of off-trail hiking, so the last item is the most important one for me. So, I take a pole.
I get a lot of comments about my hiking pole. I made it myself out of one inch scrap aluminum pipe. I think the material cost for the pole was less than a dollar. I cut off a length so that the pole is about shoulder high. I hammer one end flat, and on the other I place a rubber foot, as one puts on a kitchen stool. I use the flattened end on sand, dirt, and small gravel. Over rocky terrain, the rubber-tipped end goes down. It has remarkable sticking power on rocks.
It is very light. Complete with rubber tip, the pole weighs almost exactly one pound (450g). The pole is very strong. I use the flattened end to dig holes for human waste. I bang the pole on rocks to scare bears or to announce my presence to them; also to find a lost hiking companion. But, of course, the main use is for balance. Not so much on trails, but for the backcountry stretches that I do on every trip.
Dual poles predominate; I rarely see someone with a single pole on the trail. Two poles are better in snow and for stream crossings. But these are the exceptions. For for the most part dual poles mean twice the weight. So, however light one of them is, you have to double the weight. It is almost impossible to make a pair of poles that is lighter than my single long aluminum one. They certainly will not be as rugged. Try banging one on a rock
Hiking technique is more flexible with a long pole. I have no hand-grips, so I can slide the pole longer or shorter as the terrain changes. For example, when going down a steep set of steps I sometimes slide down the pole. You let the pole slip slowly thorough your gloved hand as you lean on it.
Best use of the hiking pole is off-trail. On my first backpacking trip we started off-trail going up Box Canyon near the Sugarloaf campsite. After only 50 or so steps I fell over. I stepped into a hole that was hidden by the grass. The backpack gave me a high moment of inertia, so it seemed to me like a slow motion fall as I toppled over. Thus, I learned quickly to probe with my pole the place I intend to step if something solid is not visible. This happens often when descending a steep brush-covered incline. I can shove my sturdy pole ahead through the tight branches. If it clinks onto some solid rock then I can safely wade into the brush.
The situation in which I am most thankful for a pole is when scrambling over a rocky slope. Sometimes the boulders can get quite large, so the distance between safe foot steps can be large. My pole with the sticky rubber end down, even on a flat tilted surface, creates the opportunity for a safety spot half-way between. Just remember that friction is greatest when the pressure is perpendicular to the face of the rock.
Support during stream-crossings is another critical use of hiking poles. Early in the season when the snow-melt fills the creeks, the rushing water creates dangers that take lives every year. In a strong flow two poles are better than one. That way you can maintain a stable three point stance (two poles and one leg) while taking a step. I will pick up an extra tree branch for the fourth leg when crossing a challenging stream. I never cross a fast stream that is over my knees.
I chuckle to myself sometimes when I see a fresh group on the trail who obviously went to REI together and bought all the same packs, and pads, and a pair of hiking poles each. They look like a caterpillar coming at you on the trail, with their poles gyrating with each step.
I always carry an empty gallon jug for getting water. One trip to the stream/lake gets me enough to sterilize drinking water, cook, and put out a campfire. Washing dishes away from streams and camp is easy when you can carry a jug of water with you. No soap or food gets put into the waterways. It is more comfortable because you can choose your seat. No bending awkwardly over a steep banked creek. It is so very convenient and weighs only 60g (2oz).
I attach the jug to the back of my pack. It will sometimes crumple up when I sit down; but that does not seem to harm it. It pops out for the next use.
Water will sometimes freeze overnight in the jug. Usually not a problem. Just shake it until all the ice can make it out. Only once after a very hard freeze did I have to cut the top open to release all the chunks.
I no longer carry a satellite phone. It has been replaced by an inReach two-way satellite tracker/messanger. I started using mobile communication in 2004 when I rented an Iridium phone for a 10 day solo back-country trip. I then purchased a Globalstar phone for 2005. The Globalstar was much clearer compared to the Iridium phone. But there were satellite holes. Sometimes I would try a half hour or more to get coverage. And, unbelievably, the phone would stop working in cold weather. Things gradually got better, and I had been using through 2016 when they doubled the airtime subscription price.
I saw the DeLorme inReach two-way satellite communicator as an attractive alternative. I was impressed when I saw a young woman texting her mother from the top of Mather pass in 2016. Both of my daughters had been using the DeLorme device, so I got one that fall. The long-term cost is cheaper than a satellite phone, even after purchasing the device. Garmin acquired the inReach device about that time, came out with their own model, and added $100 to the purchase price.
The sat phone weighs 13.2 oz (374g), the inReach 7.0 oz (198g). So there is a weight savings.
Tents cost too much. I go cheap. My favorite tent was a kid's 'Ranger' tent. I got it for $20 at a sporting goods store. It was made by North Point, a brand used by some Chinese company for distribution to American sports stores. It was supposed to be for two people, but they must have been midgets. I had to sleep diagonally. It satisfied my tent requirements:
The tent poles are inside, so there was no problem with trying to thread the pole through fabric tubes. I found a similar tent at Sports Authority that was almost as good. It leaked a little. Best cure for leaks is Tyvek tape. It is easier to apply compared to silicon sealer. The two tents are no longer made, but a similar one made by Ozark Trail can still be purchased at Walmart.
I built a tent out of Tyvek. It is very light. I modified my hiking pole so it split in two so I could use half of it for a tent pole. It was OK, but I used it only once. My Six Moon poncho tent and my homemade nylon tent are just as light and easier to use. So I use them when I am traveling light.
All my tents over $100 I have received as gifts (birthday/Christmas/Father's day) from my daughter. The first was a two-person tent from REI. It weighed six pounds; but Dale and I split the load. It lasted one night. A rugged trip through brush up Muro Blanco ripped it off a backpack on the second day. It was lost. We slept under a tarp for the rest of the trip.
Another tent was a hand-me-down from my daughter: a Double Rainbow Tarptent. It was well used, but very usable. Dale and I weathered a snowstorm in it. Other hikers said the storm broke their tent pole. That kind of event gives one confidence in the tent. It sleeps two, but at 2.6 pounds (1.2kg) it is light enough for one person. It is VERY roomy on solo hikes. It is a very nice tent. But at just under $300, I do not think I would have bought it on my own.
Another gift was the Six Moons poncho tent (Gatewood Cape $135). This is a minimalist tent that doubles as a rain coat. I use it in conjunction with a bivy sack (Outdoor Research Helium Bivy ($169)). I have used the combo on ten-day backcountry hikes (two pounds total). It is so light that it seems flimsy. But, it has done the job so far. It weathered a storm with 50-60 mph gusts (with the pole down for a lower profile). And since it is the lightest, I will probably stick with it.
The Six Moons Cape tent sags. So I built a tent out of Nylon that uses my long hiking pole for a backbone. Also, instead of relying on tent stakes, I used nylon cord with cord stops at the corners. They create a quick way to put up a tent on rocky ground. Notice the tents in the above two pictures have rocks holding down the tent stakes. It is rare that I find a campsite that accommodates all the stakes, some allow none. I patterned the tent after the Six Moons tent. Instead of a zipper, the front flaps wrap around the front pole. That pole can be either a light aluminum rod, or a standard hiking pole. There are only two exposed seams. Each is sealed with silicon and taped closed. Very efficient. Complete weight is 1 pound 6 oz (625 grams) with the aluminum rod.
The tent performed very well. Above it is perched in a very difficult position: the only semi-flat spot around. I had no choice where the corners fell, so the ability to load them down with rocks was an important advantage. Notice, also, that the hiking pole backbone prevents the tent from collapsing inward. The orange color was applauded by the SAR rangers who were looking for me.
It is really hard to keep clean out in the field. I notice this especially when I go to cook: no running water or sink, no place to put down a fork, no table, no soap, no clean bowls. So these are the little tricks I have found useful:
I started hiking before smart phones and Google Earth were available. So, planning for hikes was done with paper maps. The two most useful were maps from Trails Illustrated of the Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, and the US Dept of Agriculture/US Forest Service maps of the same. Later, as I hiked in the different areas of the parks, I would acquire one or two USGS 7.5' topo maps, especially useful for off-trail planning and use. Also, the Tom Harrison maps are excellent for an overview especially if you stick to the trails.
Topo maps come unfolded. When I carry them with me on the trail I fold them in thirds both vertically and horizontally. The result is thin and flat and can be slipped into a plastic zip-lock bag.
I became familiar with the digital versions of the maps beginning in about 1994 when I started working at Point Research creating personal navigation devices. I wrote software to display digital maps on portable devices (1994-1998). Digital versions of the topo maps (e.g. GeoTiff) are 10 to 30 Mbytes. That was huge at the time. It took hours to download these with dial-up connections. To display these I would use generic .tif format display software. For trips that spanned multiple maps I would display two different images and drag them close.
For better manipulation of the digital maps I obtained source code for the USGS dlgv32 display software. That software morphed into the dlgv32 Pro software. But I had already made improvements to the original code that was more suited to my needs. These were:
Besides the digital maps, the Dlgv32 package can also load elevations (DEM = Digital Elevation Model/Map). If both map and elevation files are loaded for the same area, then the map can be shaded. DEM's are essential for many of the features I am most interested in. I obtained most of the ones I used from the Cal State Northridge Geography department web site. I still download digital maps from https://www.topoquest.com/find/state.php?state=CA&start=L
I did not want to waste time writing map software to display my hiking routes on these web pages. I tried third-party Google, Gmap4, and CalTopo. All failed my wishes. I recently investigated Leaflet and found that a topo or satellite map could be generated with a few lines of code. So that's what I did. Examples can be found here and in the trip reports.